The primary premise of this investigation is that the revolutionaries involved in the struggle for the Philippines were freemasons, that masonic philosophy inspired them to pursue freedom for the Filipino people, and that their quest for liberation resulted significant hardships suffering and even death as the individuals involved and the Filipino people collectively pursued their dream of being independent. In completing this work, it's not my intention to imply that there weren't other contributing factors besides freemasonry but to simply suggest the ancient fraternity was one of them.
Opening Argument: Examination from first Contact in the Philippines
The Philippines is a nation of over 7.000 islands located in the south pacific in an area designated as Southeast Asia. The islands were initially controlled by regional tribal leaders much like the American Indians of North, Central, or South America. The beginning of their story of their captivity begins shortly after the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan at Samar Island in1521. Magellan first made landfall near the Leyte Gulf on the uninhabited island of Homonhon and then again on Easter Sunday of the same year in Butuan, (Agusan Del Norte) where he solemnly planted a cross on the summit of a hill overlooking the sea and claimed possession of all the islands for Spain. Magellan quickly sought friendships among the natives beginning with Rajah Humabon, the chieftain of Cebu, and was known to take pride in their conversion to Catholicism. Unfortunately, his interests went Beyond the spiritual and he became involved in their political rivalries which led to his commitment in a battle against Lapu-Lapu, chieftain of Mactan Island.
The battle took place at dawn in April 1521 when Magellan invaded Mactan Island with 60 armed men and 1,000 cebuano warriors. With what he perceived as superior forces, tactics, and military prowess he hoped to intimidate/secure an easy victory and was enthusiastic about the confrontation of his opponent. Magellan was a proud man, a Spanish conquistador that believed in the fighting superiority of the Spanish troops. His pride and underestimation of his opponent led to his ordering the Cebuano warriors to remain aboard the boats and watch. His plan was to demonstrate how his Spanish Conquistadors were a superior fighting force capable of annihilating the native population on their own.
He and the conquistadors experienced something of a setback early on, unfamiliar with the coast he had difficulty landing his men on the rocky shore where Lapu-Lapu and his warriors (1,500 strong) graciously waited to teach the Spainards a lesson. However, undaunted by what might be considered by lesser men as the start of a bad day, Magellan waded ashore with his eighty men and began waging an attack against the Mactan defenders. His underestimation of the tactical intelligence of Lapu-Lapu, the determination of the Cebuano warriors and the obvious numerical and environmental miscalculations left them effectively cut off from a retreat by sea.
To make matters worse, the Spanish conquistadors were quickly demoralized when Magallan was met by Lapu-Lapu on the battlefield where he was quickly killed with just two sticks (Filipino Martial Art) and then for good measure his troops killed 14 more of the Spanish conquistadors before they were permitted to retreat. However, as demonstrated throughout world history a single battle seldom ever dictates the outcome of any struggle and the arrogance of the colonial Spanish (from that period) would continue to drive their determination to expand Spain's economic empire.
Thus, eventually more Spanish ships would arrive and this time they would organize what they now considered their island's according to a colonization process which resembled Feudalism in Medieval Europe. This involved the reduction, or relocation of native inhabitants into settlements around a plaza of a city. The conquistadores, friars and native nobles were granted estates, in exchange for their services to the King, and given the privilege to collect tribute from inhabitants. In return, the nobles granted these privileges were tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants, justice and governance. In times of war, they were duty bound to provide soldiers for the King against any foreign invader. The church in turn was given control over the state affairs of the colony, the friars controlled the settlements of the native population and were more powerful than the governor-general himself.
Later, as a result of abuses by the Spanish government, military, and clergy during three centuries of occupation, the rise of Philippine nationalism would pave the way for a United Filipino nation. Their quest for liberation would start slowly because of discrepancies in social/economic intercourse between them but would later give birth to the Philippine Revolution. A revolution that that found its source in the enlightenment ideas of Europe, Freemasonry, and exposure to the international community. The blood of the Martyr's, the Filipino's spirit and the quest for liberation would inspire the people to pursue their nationalistic endeavors. Once the idea of rebellion took root it smoldered for a while but then quickly reached a combustible state. Like a spark in a dry forest of despair it ignited and eventually consumed every obstacle in its path!
Several Prominent the Philippine Patriots were Freemason's
The Philippine Revolution presents us with a distinct group of patriots that are clearly Masonic.
1) Graciano López Jena (1856-1896) was a Freemason, Filipino journalist, orator, and revolutionary from Iloilo, well known for his written work, La Solidaridad. Sailing for Spain in 1879 he was to become a leading literary and oratorical spokesman for Philippine reform issues. Lopez Jana was the first revolutionary to have started writing and may have founded the genesis of the Propaganda movement.
2) Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitan (August 30, 1850-July 4, 1896) was a Filipino writer, journalist, satirist, revolutionary leader, and one of the leading propagandists in the fight for liberation. He served as an editor of the first Philippine bilingual newspaper. From 1890 to 1895, he edited the newspaper Solidarity", mainly through his 150 essays and 66 editorials. Del Pilar's militant and progressive outlook were known to have been derived from the classic enlightenment tradition of the French philosophes, and the scientific empiricism of the European bourgeoisie transmitted thru freemasonry, to which del Pilar subscribed. He is considered the Father of Philippine freemasonry and spearheaded the secret organization of masonic lodges in the Philippines as a means of strengthening support for the Propaganda movement.
3. Dr. José Rizal (June 19, 1861- December 30, 1896) was a Freemason, Filipino patriot and the most prominent advocate for reforms during the Spanish colonial era. His most famous literary works were his two novels, Noli me Tangere and El filibusterismo. These social commentaries on Spanish rule formed the nucleus that inspired the Philippine Revolution. As a political figure, Jos Rizal was the founder of La Liga Filbina an organization that subsequently gave birth to the Katiounan led bv Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo. He was a proponent of achieving Philippine self-government peacefully through institutional reform but would support "violent means" as a last resort. He believed that the only justification for national liberation and sell-government was the restoration of dignity for the people. Stating, "Why independence, if the slaves of today will become the tyrants of tomorrow?"
Rizal's 1896 military trial and execution made him a martyr of the Philippine Revolution. He is considered the national hero of the Philippines and the anniversary of his death is commemorated as a Philippine holiday called Rizal Day.
4) Andrés Bonifacio (November 30, 1863-May 10, 1897) was a Filipino nationalist/revolutionary and founding leader of the Katipunan movement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule thru armed revolt. It is known to have been influenced by Freemasonry through its rituals and organization. Several of its members aside from Bonifacio were also Freemasons. Within the society Bonifacio used the pseudonym "There is Hope"
5) Emilio Aguinaldo (March 22, 1869-February 6, 1964) a Freemason (initiated by Andres Bonifacio) and one of the few Filipino patriots, who died at a late age. A towering figure and hero of the Philippine Revolution, he led his countrymen in their fight for liberation against Spain, and later, against the United States of America. He proclaimed Philippine independence on June 12, 1898 on the balcony of his residence in Kawit, now a national shrine and the annual site of Independence Day celebrations. The first president of the Philippine Republic, he opened the Malolos Congress on September 15, 1899 thus making his country the first republic ever established on the eastern shores.
6) Manuel Luis Quezon (1878-1944) joined the revolutionary forces of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo during the revolution against Spain. He fought fearlessly but eventually was forced to surrender to the Americans and spent six months in prison. Quezon took the bar exam in 1903, and in 1916 he was elected to the Philippine Senate and became its first President, he was also second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (Aguinaldo was Philippine Republic) and the first Grand Master of Philippine Freemasonry.
Спасибо за чтение!
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