"A government is good when it makes happy those who live under it and attracts those who live far away."
It is very important that you understand what politics is, what are the most common forms of government for you to understand many of the historical facts. Let's think about the concept of each of the forms of government by imagining different situations for the way you live or could live at home. Let's pretend you live in a big house; you have four brothers and five sisters. In addition to living with all your siblings, you also live with your father, mother, grandmother, and grandfather.
Situation 1: Your grandfather gives all the orders and decides when you should all sit down together for lunch and dinner. He likes to see everyone well dressed and punctual, especially at mealtimes. The way your grandfather runs the house is quite formal, which doesn't mean that it is bad; it is just conservative. So you could say that your grandfather practices (does, exercises) a conservative politics, because he likes to preserve old traditions. Politics is, therefore, the way one leads; it is the art of skill in acting and dealing; it is the art of commanding a nation, a family, or even a situation; it is the way one directs and manages a company, a city, a state, a nation. A politician is the one who makes politics.
One day you complained to your mother, saying that you would like to have lunch at another time because you wanted to watch a special programme on television which was going to be broadcast just at the time you used to have lunch. Then your mother told you: "well, in that case, you should ask your grandfather for permission to have lunch alone at another time, after all he is the boss of the house. If he agrees, fine; otherwise, I can't do anything. You spoke to your grandfather, and since he was very tolerant, he decided to make an exception and let you watch the program that would be on that day only. As you can see, being conservative doesn't mean being bad. Conserving traditions can help a place, a family, to be strong and united.
One day his grandfather died and his father started to determine the rules of the house. Then he decided that, just like his grandfather, everyone should sit at the table together, but only for dinner. His father, who was less strict than his grandfather, thought that at lunchtime each one could eat at a convenient time, as long as it was between 12:00 and 1:30 p.m. After all, the younger children of the house arrived earlier from school than the older ones, and he himself had problems getting home from work at lunchtime and always had to be on time to eat with the whole family.
Another day you again wanted to skip dinner with the rest of the family to watch another programme on television. And this time you had to consult your father, whether he would allow it or not. What happens in this house of yours is that your grandfather was the king. Then he died and by heredity (transmission of rights by virtue of blood ties), who had the right to the "throne" in your house, was your father. Now, your father is the highest authority in your home. This means that you live under a monarchy regime.
Monarchy: Form of government in which the head of state is the king or queen. When we write state or union with the first letter capitalized, we mean the country.
Situation 2: Your grandfather gives all the orders, decides when you should all sit down together for lunch and dinner. He likes to see everyone well dressed and punctual, especially at meal times. One day you complained to your mother that you would like to have lunch at another time because you wanted to watch a special program on television. Your mother told you: "Well, in that case, you should ask your grandfather for permission to have lunch alone at another time. If he agrees, fine; otherwise, I can't do anything.
You spoke to your grandfather, and unfortunately he did not accept that you were not present at the table to eat with the rest of the family. He said NO and that was that. Then when you asked him why, he simply answered: "because here in this house I'm the boss and that's the way I want it. You didn't like it, but since you didn't have the support of your mother or father...or even your brothers and sisters, you were forced to forget the television program. Then your parents started talking about painting the house, and since it was to be painted, you could change the colour of the house. His mother was happy and immediately said that she would like the house to be painted yellow. Your father agreed with her. Your grandmother would like to paint the house blue, you white and your brothers and sisters were between beige and yellow. But your grandfather decided that the house should be painted guava because he liked strong colours. You grumbled a bit, but in the end, the house was really painted guava. In this situation, your grandfather is also the king and the highest authority in your house and since he always does what he wants, thinking only of himself, without caring whether or not he pleases the rest of the family, we could say that he is an absolutist king. This means that you live under an absolutist monarchy. The king's power is absolute which means total, meaning that what the king wants is what should happen.
Absolutist Monarchy: Form of government in which the head of state is the king or queen and there is no law that places any impediment to the power of the head of state, that is, the king or queen has unlimited power.
Situation 3: Your grandfather is again the king of the house, and it is he who represents the family at all the parties in the neighbourhood. He thinks he is too old to take care of all the house management, to see what is missing at the supermarket, to check if the cleaner is cleaning up properly and also to attend the social events the family is often invited to. As three of his brothers are mature enough to take care of the house, see what is missing at the supermarket, etc., your grandfather decided that these three brothers together with your father and mother would decide everything about the house; from which new cleaning lady should be hired, to which service she should do, what would be the menu for lunch, for dinner, the meal times, what should be bought to replenish the house, who should go to the supermarket to do the shopping, who should take out the rubbish, who would change the light bulbs when they burn out, or hang the pictures when necessary. ... in short, his grandfather did not give up being the head of the house, but he did not want to worry about any matter pertaining to the house other than social relations. He would go to neighbourhood parties, to family friends' barbecues, he would welcome visitors, but he would no longer make important or routine decisions about the family's daily life. His three brothers together with his father and mother would form the parliament of the house and they themselves decided that among them, there should be a head of parliament, whom they would call the prime minister. Then these three older brothers together with their mother decided that their father would be the most suitable at that time to be the prime minister. They would create the house rules and their father as the prime minister would make sure that the rules were followed (obeyed). Your father would be the executive (executing) power of the house. Also, as prime minister, your father would tell the rest of the family that new rules and actions were taken by parliament. And since your grandfather is still the king, but the one who makes and executes the house's rules is now a parliament, you would say in this case, that you live under a parliamentary monarchy.
Parliamentary monarchy: form of government where the head of state is a king or queen, but all laws and decisions about the state (nation) are made by a parliament. Parliament is the group of people who make the laws of the state.
Situation 4: Your grandfather gives all the orders, decides when you should all sit down together for lunch and dinner. He even decides what you are going to eat every day. Moreover, he likes to see everyone always well dressed and punctual, especially at mealtimes. One day you complained to your mother that you would like to have lunch at another time because you wanted to watch a special programme on television. Then your mother told you: "Well, you should ask your grandfather, who is in charge of the house, for permission to have lunch alone at another time. If he agrees, fine; otherwise, I can't do anything. You spoke to your grandfather, and unfortunately, he did not accept that you should not be present at the table to eat with the rest of the family. He said NO and that was that. Then when you asked him why, he simply answered: "because here in this house I'm the boss and that's the way I want it. He is the absolutist king there. Up to here, the situation is the same as situation number 2.
After a long time of accepting your grandfather's orders, you and your brothers decided to rebel (oppose, revolt) against him. You told your grandfather that you were simply not going to do his bidding any longer. So, you made a rebellion. Furthermore, you said that you didn't like it when he, simply because he was the eldest or the richest, gave all the orders in the house. You then decided to change the form of government in your home and choose another head of the family. First you asked who in the house would like to apply to be the head of the family, and your father, mother and grandmother said they would like to be in charge of the house and take care of everything and everyone. You placed a box on a table in the middle of the room, where in this box there was only a narrow hole. This box would be the urn. You and your brothers and sisters said that since everyone at home should have the same rights, all those who knew how to write could give their opinion saying which of the three candidates, your father, your mother, or your grandmother, would be the most suitable to be the new head of the family. After all, you wanted a democratic government at home. Democracy is government of the people, by the people and for the people. However, there was no point in asking your 5-year-old brothers, the other 2-year-old, nor your baby sister who couldn't write what they thought about it, was there? One has to have a minimum of schooling and knowledge about a subject to be able to give an opinion about it. And of course, as in a true democracy voting is optional, and not compulsory, those who wanted to participate in the decision to choose the new head of the house would vote.
All decided, each one of his family, including his parents and grandmother, wrote the name of the person they wanted to be the president of the house on a little paper; they folded the paper well and put it inside the ballot box. His grandfather, who was angry about the change in the direction of the house, abstained (held back, deprived himself) from voting. After all the voters had voted, his older brother opened the ballot box, read all the papers, or votes, and found that his father had voted the most. So your father became the new head of the house, whom you called the president. But you reminded him that his mandate, the time he would rule, would only be one year. That after one year, the whole family would hold a new election to choose the new head of the house. The future president to be chosen could again be his father, provided that he was again a candidate, or any other member of the family who applied for the position. In this way, his father became the president, and his family began to live under a presidential regime.
Presidentialism: Political regime, or form of government, in which the head of government is the president of the republic for a limited period of time. The President of the Republic can be elected directly or indirectly. When the election is direct, the people go to the polls to choose the name of the president. When the election is indirect, the people go to the polls to choose their representatives in the government and this group of representatives decides who will be the president of the republic.
Situation 5: Now suppose that instead of letting a single person in the family make the house rules and take all the important decisions concerning the family, you and your siblings decided that the role of a head of the family should be divided into a group among yourselves. By means of a vote, you decided that this group would comprise your mother, your father and your elder brother, whom you all liked very much and who had a lot of sense. The three of you together would form the parliament of the house and all serious matters or matters concerning your family should be discussed between the three of you, who should always try to do their best to help and attend to all the needs of the family. When your mother, for example, wanted to spend the money gathered in a certain period to go on holiday, that is, a trip, and your father wanted to save the money for future accounts, your brother would have the "casting vote", that is, his opinion would break the tie. Put another way, either he would agree with your mother, or with your father and so the decision would be made. In this case, you would be living under a parliamentary regime.
Parliamentarianism: is the form of government in which laws and decisions about the state are made by a group of people, each of whom is called a parliamentarian.
Situation 6: Your father finally became the president of the house, but contrary to what you expected, instead of improving your lives he only made them worse. He took you all out of school, put you and your brothers to work in the streets selling candies or cleaning the windows of cars stopped at traffic lights and even took all the money you earned from your work. You saw your former schoolmates in the streets happy, chatting, playing and making big projects for the future while you stopped learning and gradually (little by little) forgot what little you had learned at school and in books. Your father spent all the money on him, buying the latest computer for his own use, good clothes just for him, filled the fridge with beer, even bought a nice car, expensive for him, while for you nor toys had more at Christmas. His mother also had no more rights to anything, his father made her the maid of the whole house together with his grandmother, and so he didn't pay the maid or the cleaning lady anymore. Your mother was sad, she didn't feel like dressing up, your grandmother missed the time when your grandfather was the head of the house, and you were all afraid of your father. Every time one of you tried to argue (to discuss by presenting logical justifications) your father threatened to do something even worse against you. In this case, you could say that you live under a tyrannical government.
Tyrannical government: is one in which the government is totally authoritarian and does not respect individual freedoms and rights. In a tyrannical government, the governed do not have any control. Tyranny means oppression (that oppresses, that suffocates), violence.
Situation 7: Your father is the president of the house, but he does not seem to have any talent for administration. He does not create or impose any rules, he forgets to pay the bills, now and then the electricity in your house is cut off for non-payment, your mother also does not want to take the reins of the house, does not care what you and your siblings do all day and you do not have a schedule to eat, to study or to play. Each one eats at a different time and as nobody cooks for the whole family, you live on raids on the fridge. You survive on bread with butter, milk, a little cheese here and there and very rarely your older brother decides to make spaghetti. Your grandmother also does not eat dinner at home anymore and your poor little sister is always dirty because nobody bathes her. In this case you live in an unruly home, that is, without rules, without government. One could say that you live under anarchy.
Anarchy: is the regime in which there is no government; disorder, confusion.
And now, what form of government is in place in your home? Who makes the rules in your home? Who decides how the money that comes into your home will be spent? Who gives the orders?
And in Brazil, could you tell me which form of government is in force? Can you point out a country where the form of government is a monarchy?
In Saudi Arabia, for example, there is a king, who reigns absolute (alone, without restrictions), that is, without a parliament. In Saudi Arabia the government is therefore a monarchy. And the king there is very young and is called Mohammed bin Salman.
In Japan, Canada, Luxembourg, Monaco, Bahrain, Thailand, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom (Scotland, England, Wales, Northern Ireland), for example, the form of government is constitutional monarchy, that is, each of the monarchs of these countries governs their country in accordance with what is written in their constitution. A constitution is the set of laws that governs a nation. In the United Kingdom, Belgium, Spain and Sweden there is still a parliament, so these countries have a parliamentary monarchy. In Sweden the current king is Charles XVI Gustav, married to the, very beautiful, Queen Silvia. Since it was King Charles who inherited the throne and Queen Silvia only became queen because she married the king, she is said to be the Queen Consort. It's not "lucky", it's "consort", a single word. It may be that she is very lucky, or even unlucky, but the word "consort" has nothing to do with the word "lucky". Therefore, the person who becomes king or queen by marriage and not by heredity is said to be the consort king or queen. By the way, Queen Silvia is the daughter of a Brazilian, so she is half Brazilian.
In the United Kingdom until the other day, the queen was Elisabeth II, of the Windsor dynasty, mother of the popular (well-known) Prince Charles (or Charles) who was married to the perhaps even more popular Lady Diana and is now married to Camila Parker. Queen Elisabeth has recently passed away and left other children behind, but as Prince Charles is the eldest, he is consequently the heir to the throne. So with the death of Elisabeth II, it is Charles who becomes the king of the United Kingdom. In a monarchy it is always the eldest son of the king or queen who is entitled to the throne.
In Monaco, where the monarchy is constitutional, Albert II is the prince regent or ruler of the principality. Monaco is very small and is not considered a kingdom, but a principality. Prince Albert has two younger sisters and is the son of the late Prince Rainier III and the late and very well-known American actress Grace Kelly.
In Brazil the system of government is presidential, meaning that there is a president as head of state. The current president is Jair Bolsonaro and he governs from Brasilia, the capital of Brazil and a city located right in the centre of the country, in the Centre-West region of Brazil. Brazil was once a colony of Portugal, which in turn was a kingdom. Therefore, Brazil was subject to the orders of the king of Portugal. Then in 1822 the independence of Brazil was proclaimed, that is, Brazil became independent, free and a kingdom separate from Portugal. The person who proclaimed the independence of Brazil was Dom Pedro I and since the name of Brazil at that time was Empire of Brazil, Dom Pedro I, instead of getting the title of king, got the title of emperor. After Dom Pedro I, Brazil had Dom Pedro II as emperor and in 1889, not satisfied with the monarchy, a group of people, intellectuals (cultured people, who use their intellect, their mind) and military, got together and started a movement in favour of changing the form of government in Brazil. On 15 November 1889 the republic was then proclaimed (publicly declared) and the first president of the republic was a military man, Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca.
The president of Brazil has a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies to help him - or hinder him - in the administration of the country. When we say that an office is federal, as in the case of a federal deputy, we mean that the office is related to the federation, that is, to the highest power of the Union (country).
Greater Brazil is divided into 27 units, 26 states and the Federal District (the country's capital, Brasilia), which is also considered a separate federation unit. São Paulo is a federative unit, Santa Catarina is a federative unit, Rio Grande do Sul is another, Minas Gerais is another, Rio de Janeiro is another, Ceará is another, Amazonas is another, and so on. Each state is a federative unit, and each state has its own governor. Federation is therefore the grouping of these federative units. The official name (formal, which comes from the authorities) of Brazil is the Federative Republic of Brazil, precisely because it is politically divided into federative units, each with its own government but still subject to the orders and decisions of the larger government, the federal government.
The chamber of deputies in Brazil is made up of 513 federal deputies and the federal senate comprises 81 senators! Each unit of the Federative Republic of Brazil has 3 senators who represent it before the federal government. In other words, each federative unit has 3 senators who, in their day-to-day work, must intercede (ask on behalf of) the state they represent.
The number of federal MPs representing a state depends on the number of inhabitants of that state. If a state is more populous, that state has more MPs representing it than a state which is less populous. However, this proportion rule is limited to a minimum of eight MPs and a maximum of seventy MPs per state. This means that regardless of the number of inhabitants that a state has, it will have at least eight deputies and will have at most 70 deputies representing it in the National Congress. If we divide the number of inhabitants of a state by the number of federal deputies it has, we can conclude that this state representation with the federal government is not always as fair as it might seem. This rule of proportionality with a minimum and maximum number of members per state, means that each federal representative from the state of São Paulo for example, the most populous state and the one that produces and generates the most money in the whole country, speaks there in Congress for 585 thousand people while in the case of Roraima, each federal representative represents the interests of 51 thousand people. Thus, this representation becomes really (very) unfair. It is easier to solve the problem of 3 people than 30 people at the same time, isn't it? But that's how things work in Brazil, until someone decides to change.
Deputies have a mandate (time allowed in office) of 4 years, while Senators have 8 years. Federal Deputies together with Senators form what we call the National Congress. Both the chamber of deputies and the senate have their respective presidents.
Both the chamber of deputies and the senate are part of the legislative power of the Union, which means that both deputies and senators are responsible for creating the laws of the country. Do not forget, the Union here, with a capital letter is the same as nation. So "Court of Auditors of the Union" means "treasury of the country", that is, where the money of the country is counted, money that the federal government of the country has to pay to others and money that it has to receive. Imagine you, so many people worried about making laws for Brazil. Does the country really need so many people like this to launch new laws? Are all the new laws that these Federal Deputies suggest coherent (logical, make sense)? Are all the laws that already exist really followed?
The president of Brazil is formally responsible for the direction and administration of a country with an area of 8,514,876.599 Km2 and a population of over 210,000,000 inhabitants. Managing a country, especially a large one the size of Brazil, is no easy task. Unfortunately, 10% of the Brazilian population is still totally illiterate. This means that for every 100 people in Brazil, 10 of them cannot read and write. School has not yet arrived for everyone in Brazil. And often, when a little building called a school does arrive, there are no suitable teachers to teach.
Because Brazil is such a big country, it has different problems. There are 5 different types of climate in Brazil: tropical, sub-tropical, temperate, equatorial and semi-arid. Crops that do well in a tropical region will not grow well in a semi-arid region for example. Serious problems with heavy rainfall can occur in the tropical and equatorial regions, while in the semi-arid region, instead of heavy and constant rainfall, the problem can be one of intense drought. If you live in a place where it rains a lot, you have to know what to do when heavy rain comes and starts tearing down hills and destroying houses. Those who live in semi-arid places hope for a little rain, because they are thirsty and the animals they raise and the crops they grow also need water. Where there is no water, there is also a lack of food, since nothing grows on the ground without water. People who have nothing to eat also have no energy to work. Children who have nothing to eat, cannot learn. People who do not go to school, who do not learn, who do not read, do not develop, do not improve their lives, do not improve the country. Where there is no food, there is also no health. Consequently, in Brazil, the infant mortality rate is 19.3/mil births, that is, for every 1000 children born in Brazil, almost 20 of these children die in the first year of life, most of the time for lack of food, lack of medicine, lack of a doctor on time, lack of assistance. It's so sad!
These are just some of the serious problems that the leader of Brazil has to remedy (solve) or at the very least seek solutions to try to remedy.
Besides the National Congress, the president of Brazil has the help of the judiciary, which is represented by the Supreme Court (STF). The STF is the supreme court (maximum, highest) of the country, that is, the highest instance (highest judicial hierarchy, last resort) of Brazil's Judicial Power. Its main function is to ensure that the Federal Constitution (the country's set of laws) is strictly obeyed and to defend the interests of the country. When someone, or a group of people, breaks or threatens to break a law that is directly related to the interests of the Union (the country) as a whole, this person or group of people must be judged by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is also known as the High Court or Supreme Court. What the judges of the STF decide, there is no longer any way to be claimed. The Supreme Court consists of eleven justices and also has a president.
Besides the Legislative Branch (the group of people whose job is to make the laws) and the Judicial Branch (the group of people whose job is to judge actions that break the laws) there is a third branch of government in the country called the Executive Branch (the group of people who enforce the laws). The President of the Republic is part of the Executive Branch. Together with him, a group of 18 ministries and five presidential secretariats with the status (position) of ministry make up the Executive Branch. That is a lot of people working for the country! What do you think? Some of the ministries that Brazil has are the Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Citizenship, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovations, Ministry of Regional Development, Ministry of Infrastructure, Environment, etc. O There are discussions about the number of ministries and their nomenclature or even their functions. And it is our taxes that pay the salaries of each public servant, each minister, each deputy, each senator, etc.; even the salary of the President of the Republic is paid by us, by each one of us who pays taxes. Do we need so many administrators in the country, so many ministers, so many deputies, senators, federal secretaries, state secretaries, etc.? Or is it possible that with only half of them, the country could go on in the same way or perhaps even better? What do you think? Good management is a question of organisation, dedication, and competence. Do we need so many people to organize and control our nation?
The president of the republic in Brazil is elected by direct suffrage (direct elections) and his term of office is 4 years, and he may be re-elected. When the president is unable to govern the country, either because he has health problems or is travelling abroad, for example, the vice-president takes his place. The president himself chooses the ministers who will be part of the Executive Branch.
Now that you have a general idea of how the government works in Brazil, you can find out what the federal government is doing in relation to the country. You can try to find out what are the latest laws that the National Congress has to vote on. You can find out what the latest measures taken by the President of the Republic are. You can find out how he works. And, of course, above all, you can assess by yourself what has been done in Brazil and comment with your colleagues, or your teacher, if you agree or disagree with the way Brazil has been governed. Don't be afraid not to understand something you have read about the Brazilian government, heard on TV or on the radio. Ask questions! Nobody is born knowing and to be informed about the government that "we ourselves chose" to benefit us is the right and duty of each one. Remember, keeping an eye open on what happens in our country, controlling the government that controls us, is to exercise (to do) our citizenship.
1 - Rule: The same as to rule, to direct.
2 - Confucius: He was a Chinese thinker and political theorist born in 551 BC and died in 479 BC. Confucius is how we translate his name, Kung-Fu-Tse, from Chinese. His teachings, whose doctrine is known as Confucianism, strongly influenced all of East Asia.
Test your knowledge:
1 - What is a monarchy?
1. It is a type of government regime in which there is no head of state. There is a parliament that as a group takes governmental decisions concerning the state.
2. It is a type of government regime in which the head of state is a monarch, i.e. a king or a queen.
3. It is a type of government regime in which the head of state is a president.
2 - What is an absolutist monarchy?
1. Form of government in which the head of state is the king or queen and there is no law that places impediments to the power of the head of state, that is, the king or queen has unlimited power, which is the same as saying that the king or queen has absolute power.
2. Form of government in which the head of state is the king or queen, but they rule to a certain extent. Major decisions are made by the prime minister of the government.
3. Form of government in which the head of state is a monarch elected by the people. There is no law that places any impediments to the power of the chosen head of state, i.e. the elected king or elected queen has absolute power.
3 - What is a parliamentary monarchy?
1. It is a form of government where the head of state is a king or queen, but all laws and decisions about the state (nation) are made by a parliament.
2. It is a form of government where the head of state is a king or queen, and all laws and decisions about the state (nation) are made by the head of state always accessed (with the assistance, with the help) of a parliament.
3. It is a form of government where the head of state is a monarch. There is a parliament too, but only to create laws. Decisions about the state (nation) are made by the monarch.
4 - What is democracy?
1. It is a governmental practice where the people of a country can freely participate in the political life of their country. This participation can be through elections, plebiscites, referendums, or even public demonstrations. Within a democracy, people can openly speak their minds about the government they have and give their opinions; It is government of the people, chosen by the people, to serve the people.
2. It is a government practice where the people of a country can participate in the political life of their country only through elections or plebiscites. Public demonstrations are not permitted. They are invariably stopped by the police and hushed up by the media (radio and television). Within a democracy, people can only speak their minds about the government at home and must give their opinions discreetly; It is the government of the people, chosen by the people, to serve the government.
3. It is a governmental practice where the people of a country can freely participate in the political life of their country but only participate willingly when they are candidates for political office. This participation of the population can be done through elections, plebiscites, referenda, or even public demonstrations, but those who are not political candidates at election time limit their participation to voting, and this, because voting is compulsory, otherwise they would not even do this. In a democracy there are no minimum selection criteria for someone to run for public office. It's not necessary to have a minimum of schooling, it's not necessary to know Portuguese well, it's not important to have a good education, a good presentation or to be well intentioned. Circus or television clowns, women without good conduct (behaviour), thieves, illiterates, all can be candidates for public office and earn a high salary, because that's what democracy preaches. Within a democracy, people can speak openly on television that they do not think, that they do not know how to do anything, that they do not intend to do anything for the population and yet the people listen, laugh, joke and vote for these people; it is the government of the people, chosen by the people, to serve nobody but themselves.
5 - What is the presidential term?
1. Political regime, that is, a form of government in which the head of government is the president of the republic for a limited time.
2. Political regime, that is, a form of government, in which the head of government is a military officer for an unlimited period of time.
3. Political regime, that is, a form of government, in which the government is headed by a president of the republic for an unlimited period of time, that is, as long as he decides to participate in elections, one after the other, and is elected.
6 - What is parliamentarianism?
1. It is the form of government in which laws and decisions about the state are not made by anyone. The so-called parliamentarians go to a congress only to "make chacrinha", conchavos (collusion, agreements), to seem important and to vote according to their own interest.
2. It is a form of government in which laws and decisions about the State are made by a group of people called "clique". Each member of the clique is known as a member of parliament.
3. It is the form of government in which laws and decisions about the state are made by a group of people, each of whom is called a member of parliament.
7 - What is a tyrannical government?
1. It is the tolerant, calm government that respects individual freedoms and rights. In a tyrannical government the governed do not complain about anything because everything is perfect, and the people have nothing to complain about.
2. It is the moderate government, which depending on the mood of the head of state, individual liberties and rights are respected or not. In a tyrannical government the governed can express themselves through voting, and have the convenience of not having to think, because they can only vote for one candidate, the one chosen by the head of the tyrannical government.
3. It is the government that is totally authoritarian not respecting individual freedoms and rights. In a tyrannical government the governed do not have any control.
8 - What is the system of government in England? 1.
1. Absolute monarchy. Queen Elisabeth is terrible, demanding, authoritarian and rules everything alone. And woe betide anyone who does not do what she commands! She spends the rest of her life eating "fish and chips" on the streets of London.
2. Parliamentary monarchy; The queen is the monarch, head of state, but there is a parliament which makes the actual decisions about the state.
3. Presidentialism. Queen Elisabeth is a very good president.
9 - What is the government regime in Brazil?
10 - When and by whom was Brazil's independence proclaimed? 1.
1. On September 7, 1822, by Tiradentes.
2. On September 7, 1822 by Pedro I.
3. On September 7, 1822 by Pedro II.
11 - What was the regime of government in Brazil at the time of the proclamation of the country's independence?
12 - When was the republic of Brazil proclaimed and who was the first president that Brazil had?
1. On November 15, 1889 Brazil ceased to be a monarchy and became presidential; the first president of Brazil was Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca.
2. On November 15, 1889 Brazil ceased to be a monarchy and became presidentialist; The first president of Brazil was Marshal Floriano Peixoto.
3. On September 7, 1822 Brazil ceased to be a monarchy and became anarchy. The first president of Brazil was Juscelino Kubitschek.
13 - What is the official name of Brazil?
1. States of Brazil.
2. Presidential Republic of Brazil.
3. Federative Republic of Brazil.
14 - How many federal deputies and senators does Brazil have?
1. 513 federal deputies and 81 senators.
2. 201 federal deputies and 27 senators.
3. 81 federal deputies and 27 senators.
15 - How long is the term of office of a federal deputy and a senator of the republic in Brazil?
1. 4 years and 8 years respectively.
2. 4 years for the two political posts.
3. 2 years and 4 years respectively.
16 - What is the area of Brazil?
1. 41,285 Km2.
2. 543.965 Km2.
3. 8.514.876,599 Km2.
17 - What is the STF and what is its function?
1. The STF or Supreme Federal Court is the highest court in the country, in other words, the highest instance of the Judicial Power in Brazil. Its main function is to ensure that politicians look after the interests of the country and not allow corruption in the government.
2. STF or Superior Tribute to the Federation government is the supreme court of the country, that is, it is the highest instance of the Judicial Power of Brazil. Its main function is to ensure that the population sees that the Federal Constitution is being obeyed by all and to defend the interests of the president.
3. STF or Supreme Federal Court is the supreme court of the country, i.e. the highest instance of the Judicial Power of Brazil. Its main function is to ensure that the Federal Constitution is strictly obeyed and to defend the interests of the country.
18 - How many powers does the Brazilian government rely on? 1.
1. in two powers, the legislative and the executive.
2. In four powers, the creative, the speculative, the corruptive and the mocking.
3. In three powers, the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary.
19 - For which power does the president of the republic in Brazil work?
1. The legislative power.
2. Executive power.
3. Judicial power.
20 - Who pays the salaries of politicians in Brazil?
1. The Brazilian population through taxes.
2. Brazilian volunteers who recognize the work sacrificed in our rulers.
3. Except for the President of the Republic, who is invariably a highly qualified, educated and prepared professional for the highest office in the country, all other politicians are businessmen or have their professions that guarantee their livelihood. Public service is done parallel to their ordinary work and as only part of their time is dedicated to this public service, public servants do not have salaries; they take part of their time to work for the country with the will and hope to build a better nation for all; the president's salary is only paid through taxes collected annually.
21 - Who assumes the government of Brazil in the event that the president is unable to govern the country?
1. The vice-president of the republic.
2. The president of the Workers' Party (PT).
3. The president of the Federal Supreme Court.
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